Eastern African Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences https://utafitionline.com/index.php/eajhss <p>Emphasizing experimental and descriptive research, the <strong>Eastern African Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences</strong> presents articles that examine important issues in the field of Humanities and Social Sciences. The social sciences focus on subjects like economics, psychology, geography, and history, while the humanities explore philosophy, languages and literature, and the arts. This definition encompasses such fields of study as (in the humanities) history, English, philosophy, foreign languages, classics, history of art, and (in the social sciences) sociology, psychology, economics, and political science.</p> <p> </p> UTAFITI FOUNDATION en-US Eastern African Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 2958-4558 <p><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-sa/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></p> <p>This work is licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Understanding Different Perspectives on Salvation https://utafitionline.com/index.php/eajhss/article/view/271 <p>Salvation is one of the widely bounded themes in the scripture that has gained traction under discourse due to the many perspectives under which it is viewed. This paper presents a discussion on the various perspectives of salvation both from a historical viewpoint and within the current theologies. The aim is to provide an understanding of salvation from different perspectives as observed by Augustine, Roman Catholic, Liberation, Secular, Evangelical and Biblical theologies. The study will promote reflection and debates among the scholars which will enhance problem-solving. The objective was therefore achieved through a review of various literary studies with biblical references to the term salvation and interview proponents of different theologies. The study, however, finds that despite the wide range of how different theologies view salvation, the only way to salvation is properly stipulated in the bible, thus it supports the biblical theory that salvation is by grace through faith, and furthermore, salvation is wholly an act of God. While this study was limited to the analysis of the term through a review of past studies, this paper recommends further study based on contemporary society collecting primary data on how different people view salvation.</p> Chrispine Katiyi Banda Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2023-08-04 2023-08-04 2 2 1 7 10.58721/eajhss.v2i2.271 Prolonged School Closure Due to COVID-19 Pandemic and Adolescents’ Behaviour in Co-Education Public Day Secondary Schools Nakuru East, Kenya https://utafitionline.com/index.php/eajhss/article/view/305 <p>The COVID-19 pandemic forced many governments to implement measures to curb the spread of the virus, some of which left an indelible negative impact on over 91% of the student population worldwide. Among these measures was the prolonged closure of schools, a decision by the Kenyan Government that posed substantial repercussions on the mental health of the adolescents, with some students showing an increase in drug substance use, change in sleeping and eating patterns, decrease in physical activities, and engagement in unprotected sex, an increase in screen time resulting from increasing in sedentary and risky behaviour. This study examined the relationship between prolonged school closure and adolescent students’ behaviours. A correlation research design was adopted to address the study objective, determining the strength and the direction of the relationship between the closure of schools and students' behaviours. The study was conducted in Nakuru East sub-county, Kenya, premised on the Cognitive Behavioural Theory. The target population constituted 2546 four and three students from four co-educational public secondary schools in the region. A sample size of 335 students was determined by calculation using Taro Yamane formulae 1973, which can be used when the target population is in the thousands. Using Stratified Random Sampling, data was collected using survey questionnaires. The data was further analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s Correlation coefficient and regression analysis to establish the relationship between the study variables. The study established a significant relationship between prolonged closure of schools and adolescents’ behaviour, with sedentary activities and risky behaviours. This study was, however, limited to a specific set of four co-educational public day secondary schools located within Nakuru East Sub-County, Kenya. Still, the findings can be applied to show a change in behaviour to a broader population with similar characteristics. The study recommends further research within non-co-educational institutions.</p> Mary Wambui Maina John Brown Ndung’u Ikenye Jane Njeri Gacohi Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2023-09-10 2023-09-10 2 2 8 16 10.58721/eajhss.v2i2.305 Examining the forms and meaning of the Arusa dialect of the Maa verb expansions https://utafitionline.com/index.php/eajhss/article/view/313 <p>The paper examines the form and meaning of the Arusa dialect of the Maa verb extensions. Verb expansion aspects in the Maa language are not interesting for scholars to study at all. It is this study that was interested in examining the Maa verb expansion. Case study design and qualitative approach were used in studying the Maa language. The unstructured interview was applied in data collection; thus, six informants of Arusa native speakers were used for data collection due to their competence in writing and speaking the Maa. The data were presented by using Leipzig Glossing Rules which constitute three levels namely:&nbsp; word order or parsing level, the literal translation, and the free translation level. The Cognitive Grammar and Morpheme-based morphology theories were tools used for data analysis. The study found that -in-, -i-, -e- are causative; -ta-, -to- reciprocal, -ki- applicative; -i- stative and -ki- passive allomorphs in Arusa. In view of these allomorphs -ki- and -i- are semantically cyclic in the sense that -ki- has dual meaning as in passive and applicative and -i- can be semantically stative or causative. Syntactically, both -ki- and -i- function as valency decreasing or increasing. For this fact Cognitive Grammar Theory exhausts these forms of complexity and those without cyclic as in -to-, -ta- and -e-, -in- are handled by morpheme-based theory as it accounts for the semantics of different verb exponents.&nbsp; In general, peculiarities in shapes, types, meanings, and categories of Arusa verbal morphs need a comparative study of Maa and other language families for theoretical harmonization.</p> Chipanda Simon Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 2 2 17 27 10.58721/eajhss.v2i2.313 Dynamics of Drivers of Conflict in Water-Related Resource Scarcity: Focus on Lake Turkana Basin of Kenya https://utafitionline.com/index.php/eajhss/article/view/315 <p>Lake Turkana basin, located in Turkana County of Kenya, has become a central point for studying the dynamics of conflicts resulting from water-related resource scarcity. The study sought to identify specific drivers of water use-related resource conflicts in the basin and was anchored on the Negotiation Theory. Historically, the semi-arid and arid regions of the Kenyan borders have experienced perennial conflicts between ethnic groups in the Lake Turkana Basin that revolve around scarce water-related resources on land and in water.&nbsp; Using a descriptive study design, convenience sampling accessed 36 respondents through 36 questionnaires, interview schedules, three focus group discussions (FGDs), and an observation guide.&nbsp; The study findings demonstrate that drivers of conflicts were not just locally domesticated but also had external factors and influences, including dynamics associated with inflammatory political speeches and economic and environmental factors resulting in a harsh climate. Additionally, high illiteracy, with over 45% having only primary school level education, cultural pressures where 75% male domination was observed, ethnic tensions, historical grievances, scarce critical resources which were only concentrated in a few locations, and geopolitical interests of neighbouring countries contributed to conflicts in the region. In conclusion, drivers of conflict must be carefully understood for long-term resolutions. The study limitations included remoteness and lack of infrastructure in the basin. Further research is recommended to establish whether the key drivers could be reversed in their efforts to drive conflicts to manage perennial conflicts.&nbsp; Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) mechanisms are highly recommended for managing these perennial water resource-related conflicts.</p> David Njagi Ngonge Kariuki Muigua Elvin Nyukuri Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2023-09-27 2023-09-27 2 2 28 37 10.58721/eajhss.v2i2.315 Effects of Climate Change on Women's Food Security in Mwea East Sub-County, Kirinyaga County, Kenya https://utafitionline.com/index.php/eajhss/article/view/318 <p>Climate change has had adverse impacts on people’s lives and the economies of nations across the globe. This research examined effects of climate change on food security of women in Mwea East sub County, Kirinyaga County. The study was conducted in Ngucwi sub Location, Murinduko Ward and explored how climate change events continue to threaten food security among women. The study used descriptive research design and integrated qualitative and quantitative approaches. The researcher used purposive sampling to select Mwea East sub County which has experienced frequency and severity of climate change events of drought. Cluster sampling was used to divide the sample among the different villages and systematic random sampling to select households in each village. Out of the population of 38,734 women of ages 18 years to 69 years; a sample size of 449 was calculated. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data and key informant interviews and focus group discussions were used to gather qualitative information. Quantitative data from questionnaires was analysed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis while thematic and content analysis was used to analyse qualitative data. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 25 was also used as a tool for analysing data. The study found that climate change was negatively related to food security, a relationship which was statistically significant. The study findings may provide policy and decision-makers with useful information to guide the design of appropriate socio-economic programmes, plans and policies to protect women from the adverse effects of climate change.</p> Eva Mwai Aloys Ojore Nyumba Tobias Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2023-10-06 2023-10-06 2 2 38 48 10.58721/eajhss.v2i2.318 A Sociolinguistics analysis on Sukuma Hen names https://utafitionline.com/index.php/eajhss/article/view/323 <p>The paper analyses Hen naming system among the Sukuma speech community of Tanzania. Most literature has concentrated on personal, cow, dog, and tree names but not Hen names despite their socio-cultural significance. Thus, this paper accounts for Sukuma Hen names and their associated meaning under the Cognitive Grammar Theory. The researcher used snowball sampling to get six participants. The participants selected purposively included three Hen keepers and three traditional healers from Njingani village of Geita rural district in Tanzania. Unstructured interviews and focus group discussions were the instruments for data collection. The study found eight Hen names in Sukuma speech community and the associated reasons for their names. These are <em>Jomo</em>, <em>Sagala,</em> and <em>Holasi</em> ''for appearance''; <em>Shingamagaji,</em> 'for beliefs'; <em>Nzoma</em> ‘for color’, <em>kaMende, Mbuni,</em> and <em>Mhando</em> ‘for body size’. From this base, the color, beliefs, and physical appearance determine Hen names in Sukuma speech community. The study concludes that Hen names in the Sukuma speech community are meaningful and they connotate function in accordance with conceptualizations ground. Further, there is need to conduct a study on the names and the associated factors for Hens that are bred using the new breeding technology.</p> Chipanda Simon Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2023-10-10 2023-10-10 2 2 49 60 10.58721/eajhss.v2i2.323 Transactional Leadership Style and Job Satisfaction among Multimedia University Employees, Nairobi - Kenya https://utafitionline.com/index.php/eajhss/article/view/329 <p>This study explores the transactional leadership styles and job satisfaction among the employees of the Multimedia University of Kenya (MMU) of Kenya. A descriptive survey research design was used. The study was guided by contingency leadership theory. Out of 386 employees of MMU, 197 supervised employees and 115 supervisor samples were drawn. This represented 83% of the total population was issued with a questionnaire. Purposive sampling was used to select the study location and the study population, while stratified random sampling was used to select the individual respondents. Two sets of structured questionnaires were used to collect data: the supervised employees’ questionnaire and the supervisors’ questionnaire. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 26.0. The study found that supervised staff felt that their supervisors sometimes practised transactional leadership through contingent reward and management by exception. This study recommends that leaders identify individual uniqueness, link the individuals’ current needs to the organisation’s needs, provide coaching, mentoring and growth opportunities, and implement a leadership that contains a mix of transactional and transformational leadership attributes.&nbsp; This will help design leadership development interventions for developing the capacity of managers to apply the leadership styles that are most likely to elicit employee job satisfaction and, therefore, contribute to its effectiveness.</p> Towett Lily Chepkirui Daniel M. Kitonga Judith A. Pete Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2023-10-17 2023-10-17 2 2 61 68 10.58721/eajhss.v2i2.329 Socio-cultural and psychological analysis of gender discriminative language https://utafitionline.com/index.php/eajhss/article/view/350 <p>The paper examines on socio-cultural and psychological analysis of language and gender discrimination. The motivation behind the examination was due to the increase of discriminated language assigned to gender. Literature shows that lack of awareness and education in large trigger discriminative language. This motivates investigation as the suggested factors are questionable. The paper used deficit, dominance, and identity control theories in explaining gender and language of discrimination. The study used an ethnographical study and a case study design where Mwalimu Nyerere Memorial Academy of Tanzania was a case for investigation. The study was qualitative in nature, whereby words, phrases and sentences were used in the data analysis stage. It was found that pitch rate, dressing styles, body structures, class presentation and group discussion were the areas where the gendered language was evidenced in favour of females as the result words like buttocks, smooth pitch, half necked, don’t be like a girl, be strong and rhythm pitch result from women themselves against men. Thus, discriminative words are mostly triggered by females themselves. Based on the findings, it was concluded that females should stand by themselves; they should not think that their body appearance and biological makeup trigger them to create environments of gendered words.</p> Chipanda Simon Regina M. Maunde Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 2 2 69 76 10.58721/eajhss.v2i2.350